Tag: geometry

Using Maze Following as a Teaching Project

February 10th, 2013 — 6:00pm

PyConUK 2012 had a teaching sprint that brought together teachers and geeks for mutual enlightenment. As part of that sprint we split into groups and attempted to devise teaching plans using different computing ideas. This is the result from one such group.

The goal of the project was to build on students’ knowledge of turtle geometry (learnt, perhaps from Logo) and to use Python’s turtle graphics to give a turtle the ability to navigate a maze. This means giving the turtle the ability to tell where the maze is, as well as working out some algorithm for navigation. Thinking about all the elements needed to demonstrate success lead to a number of assumptions that allow us to decide what the student has to do and what is already given. We also needed to consider how the project might be made more interesting.

As it stands, we did not get as far as a detailed lesson plan. Nor did we consider teaching issues such as diversity. The conversation did, however, lead to ideas for ways of providing the technical support for the assumptions hinted at above.

The Elements of a Maze Navigation System

These are the things that need to be thought about when dealing with mazes. Some of these will be provided, and some will be developed by the students.

The Maze

  • Maze Definition – how does the user, student or teacher, define the shape that is to be the maze?

    At some levels this is a study in its own right. The geek side of the table mentioned automatic maze generation tools, but our overall level of knowledge of such things meant we could not sensibly evaluate such things for classroom use. We had thought that it might be good for students to be able construct their own mazes and two suggestions came up:

    • Use a text file with the maze laid out on the page, with walls represented as ‘x’ characters (for example).
    • Use a turtle ( with some magic property) to draw a maze.

    We did not talk about either option a great deal. Both options seemed to allow student or teacher to provide a maze definition. However, it was clear that, in either case, the facilities needed to turn either form of input into an internal representation that a turtle could detect were going to be given and not developed by the class.

  • Maze Representation (internal) – how are the maze walls represented inside the computer system?

    The secondary question here is – and how does the turtle detect them?

    The turtle module does not provide anything helpful here and some extra code is going to be needed. This is not for the classroom (maybe later?) and must be given.

  • Maze Representation (visual) – how are the maze walls drawn on the screen?

    This is related to both the internal representation and the definition problem. No solutions, only questions.

  • Turtle Senses – how does the turtle detect a maze wall?

    The turtle must be given some kind of sense so it knows where it can go and where it can’t (because there is a wall in the way).

    • Sight is useful and leads to thinking about how far ahead, and how much, the turtle can see.
    • Touch is useful. A ‘blind’ turtle can feel its way around an object and can work equally well in a confined space as in an open one.

    Neither of these senses is part of the turtle module and some extra features must be given.


Maze following algorithms exist that are more or less good at the general case. Abelson and DiSessa give a good discussion of these and bring out relevant geometry learning points. Identifying different ways of dealing with obstacles (where a maze is just a kind of obstacle) is what the students are aiming at.

Teaching Progression

  • Recapitulation

    Students already know about moving turtles around so the initial recap step uses this knowledge to have the students draw a turtle path that avoids a simple box of known size. Specifically, head in a direction, go round the box and continue on the same line as though the box wasn’t there.


    Since the size is known there is no need for any generalisation and the recap is simply a reminder placed in the intended context of object avoidance.

  • Use the turtle’s sense

    Introduce the sense (touch or site) that the turtle has and play with simple avoidance and shape following.

    Generalise the original recap scenario to take boxes of any size.

  • Provide an initial maze to get out of. Simple stuff like a box with an indentation.


  • Play with more complex objects.

  • Test the algorithms generated so far with some edge cases.

Increasing Interest

Allow students to generate mazes for other students to solve.

Look at the time it takes any of the current algorithms to solve a given maze.

Other Discussions in the Group

We looked at an example of a robot game where two robots worked round a maze (under player control), using a weapon to destroy the other robot. The interesting part here was that the robots had sight and weapon at 90 degrees to each other so that using the weapon meant seeing the target and then turning through 90 to fire.

We were introduced to StarLogo; essentially a multi-turtle simulation facility. The immediate relevance was the sense capabilities that the turtles have.

Further Action

A large part of the maze provision needs to be provided, as does a basic turtle sense. Watch this space…


Turtle Geometry: The Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics.
Harold Abelson and Andrea DiSessa

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